Hello friends, so we are going to start a new chapter. What you have been seen in this screen? A gorgeous night scene from one beautiful city. From the figure and the image, you can understand the chapter which we are going to start. The chapter is Electricity. How important electricity for us, it doesn’t need to be introduced to you. If there is no electricity, then this beautiful looking city will be become totally dark. We use many things in our life, which all used the electricity. If we turn ON the torch, then it has electricity, the bulb in the room also has electricity, the computer which is we use has electricity, a mobile which we use has electricity In the kitchen, mixture grinder which is used by your mom has electricity, television, refrigeration, washing machine everywhere there is electricity. Means that without electricity it is impossible to imagine a life. That’s why we are going to study this chapter called electricity. Before we going to talk about electricity, we have to understand about the charge. Earlier we learn the matter, substance, and the object has protons, electrons, and neutrons ok. We also see the charge, which is applied to protons, which type of charge it has? Protons have a positive charge, which type of charge electron has? it has a negative charge, and neutrons do not have any charge. they are neutral. How much charge does a Proton have? one proton has a charge equal to +1.602 x 10^-19 Coulombs. Coulombs is the unit of charge. How much charge does an electron have? one electron has a charge equal to -1.602 x 10^-19 Coulombs, and as we say neutron does not have any charge. We also knew that, if we have two positive charge close to each other, then they repel each other. Repel means they push away from each other, If we have two negative charges close to each other, then they also repel each other, push away from each other. But if there is one negative charge and one positive charge, then what happens? they both attract each other. So the like charges, means the same type of charges positive positive or negative negative, so what they do, they repel. Like charges repel. and unlike charges attract. Now, we saw what is conductors and insulators? ok. We have one object, any matter, any substance. ok In that, lot’s of electrons are available, which represented by green dots. also, lot’s of protons are there, for saying there are also lot’s of neutrons are available. But we are not talking about neutrons, why we are not talking about neutrons? because there is no charge on the neutrons. So now, in this chapter, we are want to talk about charge, that’s why we are not going to talk about neutron. Now, talking about protons first, the protons are fixed. What do you mean by fixed? means to say that, these protons remain stable at this place. If it is in this matter, then it remains there it is not possible that it goes here, not possible that it goes there, it’s not possible.